Calculate values of heat flux emitted by overhead pipeline segment
(surrounded by air) as a function of construction, operation,
and technical condition specifications according to
Appendix 5.1 of Minenergo Method 278.

This type of calculations is usually made on design stage of district
heating network (where water is a heat carrier) and is closely related to
building codes and regulations.

m278hlair(
t1 = 110,
t2 = 60,
t0 = 5,
insd1 = 0.1,
insd2 = insd1,
d1 = 0.25,
d2 = d1,
lambda1 = 0.09,
lambda2 = 0.07,
k1 = 1,
k2 = k1,
lambda0 = 26,
len = 1,
duration = 1
)

## Arguments

t1 |
temperature of heat carrier (water) inside the supplying pipe, [*°C*].
Type: `assert_double` . |

t2 |
temperature of heat carrier (water) inside the returning pipe, [*°C*].
Type: `assert_double` . |

t0 |
temperature of environment, [*°C*]. In case of overhead laying this is
the ambient temperature. Type: `assert_double` . |

insd1 |
thickness of the insulator which covers the supplying pipe, [*m*].
Type: `assert_double` . |

insd2 |
thickness of the insulator which covers the returning pipe, [*m*].
Type: `assert_double` . |

d1 |
external diameter of supplying pipe, [*m*].
Type: `assert_double` . |

d2 |
external diameter of returning pipe, [*m*].
Type: `assert_double` . |

lambda1 |
thermal conductivity of insulator which covers the supplying pipe
[*W/m/°C*]. Type: `assert_double` . |

lambda2 |
thermal conductivity of insulator which covers the returning pipe
[*W/m/°C*]. `assert_double` . |

k1 |
technical condition factor for insulator of supplying pipe, [].
Type: `assert_double` . |

k2 |
technical condition factor for insulator of returning pipe, [].
Type: `assert_double` . |

lambda0 |
thermal conductivity of environment, [*W/m/°C*]. In case of overhead
laying this is the thermal conductivity of open air.
Type: `assert_double` . |

len |
length of pipeline segment, [*m*].
Type: `assert_double` . |

duration |
duration of heat flux emittance, [*hour*]. Type: `assert_double` . |

## Value

Heat flux emitted by pipeline segment during `duration`

, [*kcal*].
If `len`

of pipeline segment is 1 *m* and `duration`

of
heat flux emittance is set to 1 *hour* then the return value is equal
to that in [*kcal/m/h*] units and so comparable with values of
heat flux listed in
Minenergo Order 325.
Type: `assert_double`

.

## Details

Details on using `k1`

and `k2`

are the same as for
`m278hlcha`

.

## See also

## Examples

m278hlair()

#> [1] 138.7736

# [1] 138.7736